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LLM Law Outlines Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines

Overview Of Debt Agreements Outline

Updated Overview Of Debt Agreements Notes

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement

Approximately 204 pages

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement with Kahan Spring 2019...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

01. Introduction and Overview of Debt Agreements


  • Corporate bonds and Credit Agreements involve large loans to corporations

  • Class is about the contractual provisions of these lending arrangements

    • macro perspective: general purpose

    • micro perspective: how clauses should be constructed, exceptions

    • nano perspective: is expression ambiguous, does the literal meaning conforms what we intended

  • Credit Agreements

    • typically/ mostly with banks

      • one bank

      • syndicate

    • types

      • term loan: due on a specific date

      • revolvers: co. can borrow and repay up to a certain amount (line of credit)

        • difficult to transfer your participation to another bank

      • letters of credit: co. handle payment for goods purchased, future obligation

      • credit facilities: multiple types of agreement

  • Corporate Bonds

    • Debt Securities

    • Often issued publicly and traded

    • Multiple holders of bonds of same issue

      • Insurance companies

      • Other institutional investors

      • Few retail investors

    • Indenture and Certificate

    • Some bonds are “private placements:” not publicly issued, less trading, usually no “indenture” but Note Purchase Agreement (or so).

  • Comparison

    • Corporate Bonds

      • Holdings tend to be more dispersed than Lenders in Credit Agreement

      • Trading is more frequent than trading/assignment in Credit Agreement

    • To the extent Credit Facility involves ongoing obligations of lenders (as in revolver, letter of credit), assignment is difficult.

      • Not doable via bonds.

    • Interest rate variable versus fixed

      • Variable: revolvers tied to market rate, LIBOR (determined by a no. of banks)

    • trading in corporate bonds

      • public placement

      • larger number of holders

      • trading frequently

    • trading/ assignment in credit agreement

      • private placement

      • lower no. of creditors, little or no trading

  • Focus of the Course

    • Study contractual provisions in agreements through Problem Sets

      • What is purpose of provisions?

      • How do provisions within one agreement relate to other provisions in same agreement?

      • Compare provisions within same type of agreement.

      • Compare provisions across types of agreements?

      • Drafting problems: mistakes, loopholes, imperfections

      • Case law

    • Parts are very detail oriented. Prior Preparation is KEY

  • Terminology

    • Bonds, Debenture, Notes

    • All terms for debt securities

    • (Even Bank Agreement will contain a “Note”)

    • “Bonds”

      • used as catch-all term

      • Also used more narrowly for secured obligations - What is “secured?”

    • Notes

      • Used for short-term publicly issued securities

      • Also used for non-public debt

      • Also a promise to pay, used for all kinds of debt

    • Debentures

      • Used for public debt than is longer term

    • Terminology and usage conventions have no legal significance

    • Certificated versus Uncertificated

      • Certificated = an actual piece of paper representing the security, the Note, Debenture, Bond, etc. Signed, often kept in a safe

      • Most corporate bonds in the US are certificated.

    • Registered versus Bearer

      • Registered = owner of the security is the person registered as owner by the Registrar, and not the person who possesses the piece of paper.

        • A register is kept, can get replacement

      • Bearer bonds are virtually non-existing in US for tax reasons.

        • Equivalent to cash, ownership transferred by that piece of paper

  • Sources of Legal Provisions

    • Indenture

      • For public bonds, most legal provisions are contained in the “indenture.”

      • contract between the Issuer/Company and a trustee

        • Trustee acts as representative of the bondholders (not contractual party but are third party beneficiaries of the indenture)

        • Bondholders are “third party beneficiaries”

    • Security

      • Some additional terms are on the Security itself.

      • “Form of” Security is usually part of Indenture.

      • Not the actually signed note, only a copy of the note before being signed

  • Interest Provision

    • In public bonds, typical pattern

      • Semi-annual

      • Interest Payment Date

      • Interest record date

        • slightly before the interest payment date, cut-off date established by a company in order to determine which shareholders are eligible to receive a dividend or distribution.

    • Example: Freeport Indenture

      • Where do you find payment and record dates?

      • What are the dates?

Amihud, Garbade & Kahan, A New Governance Structure for Corporate Bonds

  • Conflict of interest between creditors and shareholders & managers

  • Managers serve interests of shareholders – acts to maximise company’s common stock’s value

  • But enhancing value of equity may reduce value of company debt, e.g.:

    1. cash distributions to shareholders (dividend/ stock repurchases)

    2. spin-offs to shareholders of common stock of lightly leveraged subsidiaries owning valuable corporate assets

    3. dealings between shareholders and co. on terms favourable to shareholders

    4. investments in projects with greater risk than originally anticipated by creditors

    5. financing new projects with debt (and not equity)

  • Shareholders still want co. to take such actions if it reduce co.’s debt by more than they increase value of equity (overall value of co.)

  • Agency costs of debt: losses in corporate value caused by shareholders’ actions in advancing their parochial (narrow-minded) interests, while in control of a...

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines.