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LLM Law Outlines Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines

Anti Dilution Outline

Updated Anti Dilution Notes

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement

Approximately 204 pages

Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement with Kahan Spring 2019...

The following is a more accessible plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Corporate Bonds and Credit Agreement Outlines. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

Anti-Dilution

Lennar Indenture, Section 11.6, 11.7, 11.10, 11.13

Broad v. Rockwell, 642 F.2d 929 (1981) (P. #1)

Overview

  • Anti-Dilution Adjustments

  • Dividend Formula

  • Ender Offer Formula

  • Warrant Formula

  • Partaking Adjustment

Stock split

  • an issue of new shares in a company to existing shareholders in proportion to their current holdings simplest way to reduce stock price (no one cares for convertible bondholders – screwing convertible bondholders to benefit shareholders)

  • Value of convertible bond conversion option is already ‘in the money’

Gap between the two lines option value

  • Only need a Notice Provision so convertible bondholder can convert before stock split (easy and cheap remedy)

    • c.f. hard provision: need to identify the actions that reduce company value + right remedy difficult to construct effective contractual protection, as it is difficult to specify which actions the holders would care about

Problem Set 6

  1. Assume that the "Current Market Price" of Lennar common stock is $30 a share and that 10 million shares of common stock are outstanding. How is the initial conversion price adjusted in each of the events? Do these adjustments fully protect the economic interests of Lennar noteholders?

  1. Lennar effects a 2 for 1 stock split.

Anti-Dilution Provisions

  • If company does act + convert afterwards get something different than what you would have gotten if you convert beforehand change formula that determines what you get

    • To effectively protect the convertible holders shares they get immediately after conversion should be identical to what they get immediately before stock split

  • 2 for 1 stock split effect on convertible holders absent adjustment

    • Reduces stock price by 50%

    • Reduces value of stock received upon conversion by 50%

  • Adjustment? 11.06(a)

    • Condition “If the Company issues [additional] shares of Class A Common Stock as a dividend or distribution on shares of Class A Common Stock, or if the Company effects a share split or share combination…”

    • Adjustment “the Conversion Rate will be adjusted based on the following formula:

CR’ = CR(0) x OS’

OS(0)

  • CR(0) = Old Conversion Rate

  • CR’ = new Conversion Rate

  • OS(0) = no. of shares outstanding immediately prior stock split

  • OS’ = no. of shares outstanding immediately after stock split

New conversion rate = Old conversion rate x no. of shares immediately after stock split 2

no. of shares immediately prior stock split 1

= 2 (Old Conversion Rate)

  • After adjustment, shares received would be doubled keeps value of shares received the same as prior to stock split.

  1. Lennar pays a stock dividend of 30 shares of newly-created Class B common stock for each 1,000 shares of common stock. (Class B is identical to regular common stock, except that it carries no voting rights.)

  • Dividend Formula

    • Most important formula for thinking about anti-dilution provisions. Where does it come from?

    • Goal: value of stock (or other consideration) should be the same if you convert right before or right after diluting event

    • Assumption: dividend reduces shares value by amount of dividend

    • Let

      • V = face value of bond

      • OCR = conversion rate before adjustment

      • P = share price before dividend

      • D = value of dividend

    • Value received if converted before dividend

      • V * OCR * P (number of shares times share price)

      • Face value of bond x conversion rate before adjustment x share price before dividend

    • E.g. convert $10,000 bond at rate of 40 shares/$1000 with stock price $30: $10,000*40/$1000*$30=$12,000

    • Value received after conversion

      • V * NCR * (P – D) (new number of shares times share price)

    • Dividend Formula: NCR = OCR * P / (P - D)

New conversion rate = old conversion rage x market price / (market price – dividend)

  • Value received if converted after dividend

    • V * [OCR * P / (P - D)] * (P – D)

    • = V * OCR *P same as if converted before

  • Take $10,000 bond at rate of 40 shares/$1000 with stock price $30: $10,000*40/$1000*$30 = $12,000

  • Assume dividend of $6

  • NCR = 40 shares/$1000 * $30 / ($30 - $6) = 50 shares/$1000

  • Assume dividend reduces share price to $24

  • Take $10,000 bond at rate of 50 shares/$1000 with stock price $24: $10,000*50/$1000*$24 = $12,000

  • Main Formula: SP(0) / SP(0) – FMV

  • Subsidiary Formula: FMV(0) + MP(0) / PM (0)

  • What is relationship? Why two formulas?

  • Dividend formula satisfies goal that holder gets same value if she converts before or after dividend given assumption

  • Is this enough for full protection of value of conversion right? No

    • For full protection, one would also have to sure that future variability in what one converts into is unaffected

    • E.g., in (c), if LNC stock is much more variable than remaining assets, variability will decline

    • The higher the variability of what you convert into, the greater the value of a conversion right

    • Also, board has discretion in setting FMV

Lennar

  • Stock Dividend (30 on 1000)

  • Effect on convertible holders absent adjustment

    • Ignoring difference in classes, reduces stock price by about 2.91%

    • Lack of voting rights means reduction is smaller

    • Dividend Formula (see above)

      • 11.06(a) is applicable to stock split and stock dividends, consisting of Class A Common Stock

      • New conversion rate = Old conversion rate x (no. of shares after stock split)

(no. of shares prior stock split)

  • This formula is simpler and better: no discretion or evaluation that can be abused

  • All Class A Common Stock would have the same value

  • 11.06(c) If company distribute shares of capital stock, evidence of Company’s indebtness or other assets or property or right, options or warrants to acquire the Company’s capital stock or other securities

    • This describe all types of dividends all subject to this formula

    • Except for what is taken out from the formula

      • (i) dividends, distributions, rights or warrant as to which such an adjustment was effected pursuant to s.11.6(a) and 11.6(b)

      • (ii) cash dividend subject to s.11.6(d)

      • (iii) spin-offs which the provision set forth below in this s.11.6(c)

CR'= CR(O) x...

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